Once you have your data, you will need to present it to your teacher and science fair judges. In a science publication, you would choose between a table and a graph, but for the science fair project it is acceptable, and even encouraged, to showcase the data in both forms.

**Type of graphs:** Your first choice is to determine which type of graph would best communicate your findings. Your basic choices are bar graph, line graph, pie chart, or scatter plot.

**BAR GRAPH **– This is the most common type for science fair projects. You may select a bar graph when your independent variable is qualitative (categories) or quantitative (numbers).

Look closely and make sure your bar graph has all the highlighted parts:

**LINE GRAPH** – This is the second most common, but frequently used incorrectly, so be careful here. You should only select a line graph if your independent variable is quantitative (numbers) and you hypothesized that the changes in the independent variable would result in changes in the dependent one. For example, line graphs are great for showing changes in the dependent variable over time or distance along a transect.

Again double check the axes:

**PIE CHART** – Pie charts are good for projects that have qualitative independent variables and have generated data that can be expressed as percentages of the total. For example, if your data were counts (i.e. the number of times something happened), then this might be your best choice to compare different treatments.

**SCATTER PLOT** – If the purpose is to see if the variables are related (common in environmental projects), but there was not a clear choice for independent and dependent variables (for example wind speed and water temperature), then a scatter plot would be your best choice. This option typically requires much more data than the others to observe a trend.

Chris HarrrisThis is Really Helpful

AnnetteMy daughter did an experiment to see which long stemmed flower would last the longest. What would be a good graph or is it possible to graph the results?

Dr. Maille LyonsBar graph: flower type on x-axis; time on y-axis. Hopefully you had at least 3 flowers (e.g. 3 roses) for each flower type. Present photos if you have them to show when you decided the flower was “done”

AnnetteThank you!

arianna salinasHi y daughter is doing a project on if an apple can charge a phone,and she doesn’t know what to put on a he graph or which one to use.

Dr. Maille LyonsShe can only make a graph if she measured something such as the time the charge lasts, or the amount of charge generated, etc.

If she just did it to see if she could… she won’t have a graph because the answer will be yes/no. This is more of an “engineering project” than a “science experiment” – unless… she continues by testing different types of apples, or some other variable.

MelissaI’m doing an experiment on: How does the amount of water affect the growth of plants? I’m conflicted in which type(s) of graph I should use.

Dr. Maille LyonsYou could do a bar graph, for each different volume of water used (x-axis) with the final growth (height? weight? number of new leaves? etc.) on the y-axis.

You could also do a line graph with time on x-axis and growth on y-axis, using a different colored line for each volume used, if you measured growth over several time points.

Desiree & AlairaWe LOVE this idea…..our project is due in TWO MORE DAYZZZZ!!! and we didn’t even start on our projects yet because we didn’t know which one to pick…..and we have NEVER done a science project in our lives! the last part we needed was a chart to go with what our experiment was about….and all we wanted 2 say was thnk you! with love from Beaufort Middle School (South Carolina)

Sophia ParkerMy son is doing a Science Fair Project on bacteria I have 8 different samples and 3wks of work what chart do you think I may need?

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat are the 8 samples?

What did you measure?

What do you mean by 3 weeks of work (i.e. what did he actually do?)

Most likely a bar graph (based on 8 different types of samples), but potentially a line graph because time (3 weeks) is quantitative.

cindyMy 4th grade daughter decided to do her Science Fair Project on the benefits of using worm compost on plants. For the experiment she planted 6 of the same seeds (lima beans) 3 were controlled (no worm compost applied) 3 were her independent variables with .25, .50 and .75 ml of compost applied at planting. Over the course of 2 weeks she collected data. We are not sure what type of graph would be best since “plant height” doesn’t necessarily make it the best plant. Thicker stem, larger true leaves, overall health of the plant in other words really tells the story of how the compost has affected the plant, not only height. Being that these are quite small and she is in 4th grade, measuring the exact size of the tiny stems is not possible yet some are clearly thicker than others. Do you have any suggestions. All plants were in same location, with same amount of sunlight and given the same amount of water every other day.

Dr. Maille LyonsGreat idea for a project.

Was there only one seed in each of the three amounts of compost? Next time, have 3 seeds for each treatment so she has some measure of variability. There were three for the control… how much variability was there between the results among those three? The problem with only one seed per amount of compost is that it will be difficult to tease apart the natural variation in seed to seed differences with that of the differences due to amount of compost.

Since both of the independent variables are quantitative (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75ml compost and 0 to 2 weeks time), she can select either line graphs or bar graphs. She could make both and decide which she likes better.

Generally I would recommend the bar graph for the amount of compost and a line graph for the changes over time. She will need to decide what she is defining as “best” and plant height is one metric. She can use photos to explain that it wasn’t the only one.

cindyThank you so much this is great feedback.

Diego MoralesI am doing a science fair project on if music can improve taking free throws in basketball and I don’t know what graph to use

Dr. Maille LyonsBar graph, with music vs. no music (or type of music) on x-axis and number (or percentage) of baskets made on y-axis

Zoe MooreDid a science project on which substances made metal rust. No time involved. All metal rusted in different solutions

Dr. Maille LyonsDid they all rust the same amount? What was your control (plain water – maybe?) Did the control also rust as much as the others? Do they look different in ANY way? What metal objects did you use? What solutions did you test?

Zoe MooreThank you. The penny and nail and paper lip all rusted at different time frames. Control was water and it rusted as much as the others. Metal button rusted at different rate. We also had the nail in mud and it rusted. The penny and button had white and black on it. The nail had orange on it. The paper lip was just black

Dr. Maille LyonsYour best bet will be photos with a data table for your observations (i.e. what you described each as). There really isn’t anything to graph unless you can somehow estimate the percent coverage of rust.

AdenI am doing a science fair project on changing the color of carnations. I am using red, blue and green dye.

I will try to find which color is absorbed the fastest. LIght, amount of wate, temperature of water and the number of dye drops will all be the same. I dont have a clue as to how to graph this project. Any ideas? Please help!

Dr. Maille LyonsIf you measure the time it takes to first see color and/or the time it takes to get a fully colored flower, you will be able to make a bar graphs for time vs. treatment (each color).

Alternatively you could photo at the start, then 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, then once each day until you don’t see any further color changes (or any other time periods you think are best). You will then be able to make a line graph with time on the x-axis and percent colored on the y-axis. You will have three lines (one for each color). You can estimate percent coverage from the photos and compare.

JackMy science fair project deals with behavior science. I am testing about 10-20 people between the ages of 15-60. I want to know how to make a graph or chart showing how well people remember a short poem. I am documenting how many pauses and mistakes and if they have to start over. I do not know how to show my findings though. Please give me advice. Thank you.

Dr. Maille LyonsYou could group the data by male and female and make a bar graph for number of mistakes (y-axis) vs. male/female.

You could group the data by age (pick 5 or 10 year categories like: 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, etc.) and do the same as above.

You could also make a scatter plot graph with age on the x-axis and number of mistakes on the y-axis to see if older trends toward more mistakes.

Anita RodriguezI am doing a science project on which gum is stickier, chewing gum or bubble gum. I measured the tack of the gum by sticking each piece of gum (each piece cut to 2 grams) “sandwiched” between two pieces of foam board. I pulled the foam board apart and measured how far it stretched (stuck together) until it fell apart, at which point i measured the distance in cm. At that point I also recorded the area that was still covered in gum and recorded the percentage of gum still stuck to the foam board. Is there another (or better way) to measure the stickiness of the gum? How would I put the data on to a graph?

Your help is much appreciated!

Dr. Maille LyonsSounds like you have already made the project your own and have quantitative dependent variables which is exactly what you want! Nice job.

OK – for the graph, you can make at least 2bar graphs with Gum Type on the x-axis: 1 bar for chewing and 1 for bubble; then the y-axis will be Stickiness, measured as the length reached before breaking (in cm) = 1 graph and Stickiness, measured as the amount left stuck behind (in % still stuck) for the 2nd graph.

If you want to do more work, you could also use your system, rigging a small cup/holder to the second board and see how much weight it can support before breaking (so instead of pulling up, let gravity pull down) – your metric would be the number of pennies (or other small weights) the gum can hold before breaking.

You could also test more types of gum (e.g. different brands of each type) or if you can somehow get an estimate of sugar content you could compare “stickiness” vs. sugar content.

KimberMy child is preparing for a science fair project – wants to know does different types of paint affect the drying time of the paint? The indepentent variable being the different types of paint. We have identified the level of dryness as the dependent variable though we are stuck on how to measure & then graph using quantitative measures since it is more qualitative. We identified a nonstandard measuring tool as a rubber glove with identifying 3 different levels of dryness (adjectives- wet, dry and tacky) by applying finger- touch pressure. We are not convinced this is correct- even though part of the experiment will be to test in certain, set increments of time & record the level of dryness. Would the time increments be the dependent variable instead of the level of dryness? Please offer any thoughts on this and graphing suggestions. I believe the x axis is to show the independent variable (types of paint), but it makes more sense to have the increments of time on the x axis and level of dryness (dependent variable) on y-axis & the graph show the different types of paint. Thoughts?

Dr. Maille LyonsEvery time you “touch” mark the time. Best if you “touch” at regular intervals of time (e.g. every minute, every 5 minutes, etc. whatever you feel will capture differences) – make sure you touch different parts of the flat object to be painted. I recommend painting something long and skinny (e.g. 2 by 4 piece of wood) so that you can systematically touch it and keep track of wet and tacky and dry. Take photos of the rubber glove to show the difference between tacky (some paint) and dry (no paint on glove).

Then your dependent variable is level of dryness, measured as the time it takes to stop being tacky (quantitative).

You will be able to make a bar graph with the type of paint on the x-axis and the average time to dry (as measured by touching) on the y-axis (because you should have at least 3 painted objects for each type of paint).

You will also be able to make a data table with time across top (columns) and type of paint as rows with “wet” or “tacky” or “dry” in each corresponding box. If you touch systematically along a 2×4 then you should also have great matching photos.

Data could look something like:

Type 1: wet, wet, wet, tacky, tacky, dry

Type 2: wet, tacky, tacky, tacky, tacky, dry

Type 3: wet, wet, wet, wet, tacky, dry,

You will not be able to make a line graph because “wet/tacky/dry” are not quantitative, but you have outlined a creative way to answer the question.

Dawne SheffieldMy son is making a crystal radio for a science experiment and is just testing whether it works or not. So it is yes or no results, how should this be graphed. What would the independent and dependent variable be ?

Dr. Maille LyonsThis sounds more like a project and less like an experiment… There do not really appear to be any independent and dependent variables. Perhaps if you add more details – did he ask a question? did he test any particular aspects of the building? did he try different crystals?

Kim SprouseMy daughter is doing an experiment on Bubble gum – Which graph would I use? She needs to show which one lost is color the fastest on Trials 1-10 and we used grape, strawberry and sour apple – Thanks!

Dr. Maille LyonsBar Graph! Sounds like you measured “time” as your dependent variable, so would go on the y-axis (average of ten trials); and “Type of Gum” or “Gum Flavor” would go on the x-axis, then label each bar accordingly (grape, strawberry or sour apple). I would couple this with a data table to clearly indicate you did 10 trials for each flavor. Or you could make an individual bar graph for each flavor, with time on the y-axis and trial number on the x-axis, showing 10 bars. This would be an indication of how variable your method of determining when the color was lost was. Good Luck.

sarahMy son is doing an experiment on erosion,he needs to find the results and is wondering if a pie chart would work best,he put a plant and soil in one pan,the other sand,and another soil.Which one should he use?Thanks!

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat did he measure? From the details provided, I would generally recommend a bar graph with each “treatment” on the x-axis (i.e. each condition he tested) and whatever was measured on the y-axis (hopefully a number of some sort).

A pie chart is more for percentages – for example % yes vs. % no to a particular question; Or the % of people that picked a certain color; etc.

Ashley FordMy son is doing a science fair project how many pennies does it take to sink a boat made out of aluminum foil what would are graph be

Dr. Maille LyonsThat’s not really a science fair project unless you made several boats with something changed for each one (e.g. size, shape, material made out of). Then you would make a bar graph with type of boat on the x-axis and the number of pennies need to sink on the y-axis.

emilywhat website could we use to make a bar graph online

Dr. Maille LyonsGoogle “create a graph” and this should be one of the top hits:

http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/

It’s user friendly and you can print your graph

RoseHi, my son is doing a science fair project and wanted to see what kind of graph should he use. His project is he tested 6 people to guess 4 flavors of kool aid while blindfolded and see who guessed all correctly. Some only guessed 2 right and so on.

Dr. Maille LyonsHe could do a bar graph with each person on the x-axis and the number of correct guess (or percentage correct) on the y-axis

PATRIQUE LARCOHello:

What kind of graph could I use to display the distribution age by two different treatment groups?

Spinal Cord Simulation vs. Physical Therapy

Sample Size

•Much Bigger •Much Smaller

Age

•Higher mean •Lower mean

Age

•Bigger range in population age (4 to 72 years old) •Smaller range in population range (11 to 59 years old)

Sex

•Close to 40% and 60% distribution •Close to 20% to 80% distribution

Duration of disorder

•Higher mean •Lower mean

Duration of disorder

•Bigger range in population’s duration •Smaller range in population’s duration

Dr. Maille LyonsIt’s not clear from the question what you measured… But if you have two treatment groups, they would usually go on the x-axis of a bar graph with whatever you measured (a number) on the y-axis to show how they compare. For example, if I had coffee drinkers vs. soda drinkers and I measure average height, I would make a bar graph with 1 bar for coffee drinkers and 1 bar for soda drinkers and then each bar would be the average height (height on y-axis).

But from your groupings, I am not convinced that is what you have for data…

If the two treatments were: Spinal Cord Simulation vs. Physical Therapy, then these would go on the x-axis and you would have 1 bar for each. Your y-axis could be age (1 bar each to show which treatment had older/younger subjects).

Usually if you are interested in age distribution, you would make categories (for example group the data by year-class of 5 or 10 year intervals) and then graph the thing you want to show (maybe the number of subjects that use physical therapy?) for each age class. If you did one color bar for physical therapy and a different color bar for spinal cord simulation then you may be able to show there is a difference in the typical ages of who prefers which treatment…

Hope that helps! If not, re-phrase you question or be more specific on the data you have.

PATRIQUE LARCOThank you that’s perfect. I really wanted to see what kind of graph(s) could be used to display the distribution of age by treatment group?

I think you’ve made it clear for me.

jacob pelletierim doing a progect with heavy and light paper airplanes. what graph do i use?

Dr. Maille LyonsA bar graph with two categories on the x-axis (horizontal one) – Light and Heavy; then whatever you measured (distance?) on the y-axis (vertical one). Don’t forget to label both!!

jacob pelletierthanks

CynthiaMy sister is doing a science fair project on will sunlight outside or inside affect the growth of a plant. What type of graph can she use

Dr. Maille LyonsBar graph: “Inside” and “Outside” are the independent variables (x-axis) with whatever was measured (size? # of leaves? height? etc.) on y-axis.

VickiHi Thank you for all the information available. It’s very helpful. My daughter is doing a project where she applies a treatment to a rose petal to see the results. The treatment is water, vitamin E, and “air.” The objective is to determine the impact that vitamin E has on the appearance of skin where the petal represents the skin. We are not sure what to graph. She plans to run the experiment over 10 days and repeat it 5 times. We were thinking time on the x-axis and color on the y-axis and have a line graph for water, vitamin E and air. Do you think this is the best representation? How would she show that she repeated the experiment?

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat is she actually measuring? That is the dependent variable and goes on the y-axis – it must be quantitative (not just “color”). It could be “time to first signs of losing color” or it could be “percent of petal with a color change” or something else (even percent change compared to the control), but it must be associated with a number.

One independent variable is the treatment, so you could make a bar graph with treatment on the x-axis (water, vitamin E, and air) and a final outcome on the y-axis (one bar each, or one bar for each time she repeated the experiment).

You can only make a line graph with time on the x-axis if you have quantitative dependent variable that changes with respect to time (e.g. percent of pedal with color loss); then you can have a line for each treatment. Same as above, there can be a line for each time she repeated it or she can present the trials (hopefully at least 3?) in a data table, then graph just the average as the line.

VickiThank you so much Dr. Lyons! Very helpful!

omeldaMy son is doing a project on Roots – how do different types of soils affect the ability of roots to anchor plants what should he do. please help

Dr. Maille LyonsSo your independent variable is “type of soil”, that’s what he is changing. The dependent variable must be quantitative (i.e. result in a number) – so how will he measure “ability of roots to anchor plants”? This is what he needs to figure out. How can this be measured? How can this be estimated?

omeldathank you so much

omeldaso sorry for asking but how would he measure it he the doesn’t understand it

Dr. Maille LyonsThat will be his choice for the design. I don’t know how to measure that “ability”, perhaps he should try something easier – like root length or number of new roots?

milliCan any body please tell me which graph would be best for my daughter to use if she is doing how much of a temperature increase would occur when testing several different foods?

thanks

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat exactly is she “testing” ??

From the limited information, it sounds like a bar graph with the type of food on the x-axis and temperature on the y-axis

MaiHello

My daughter is doing a science experiment in heat insulation.

She is comparing commercial and natural materials, she had done 6 trials. What is the best graph to describe her results. Plotting it on a line graph sincethe data was recorded over a period of time. Or a bar graph of the average of temperature of the 6 trials. Thank you

Dr. Maille LyonsIt’s hard to say without more information.

If she is interested in which material insulated something “better” then a bar graph with the type of material on the x-axis and the average of whatever “measurement” of “better” on the y-axis would show that.

If she is interested in which material insulated something “longer” then a line graph with time on the x-axis and whatever was measured on the y-axis (with the average of each of the materials graphed in a different color) would show that.

If she is interested in which material was “more consistent” then graphing all six trials for each material would show that.

StephanMy daughter is doing a science project on which color feeder a blue jay would like best…What graph does she use? Please Help!

Dr. Maille LyonsBar Graph: Put color on the x-axis and whatever she measured as “best” on the y-axis

LourynHi I did a science fair project to see when a apple goes brown on what day each day we wrote down what it looked like whould I be able to do a graph and wich one should I use.

Yours sincerly Louryn

Dr. Maille LyonsYou could graph days until browning on y-axis and whatever you tried to keep the apple from browning on the x-axis – probably a bar graph.

CourtneyMy 4th grade daughter is completing her science fair project tonight on density. She has corn syrup, vegetable oil, maple syrup, water, and dish soap that she poured into a glass. Each trial was done in a different order to see if the corn syrup had the most density. How would she graph this? No time was documented. The variable was the order the liquids were poured.

Thanks for your help.

Dr. Maille LyonsSince the dependent variable (order) really isn’t quantitative… you can’t graph this. Her best bet will be to use pictures/drawings to show the order of liquids poured vs. the order of liquids layered in the glass. If she observed that corn syrup layered on the bottom, regardless of when it was poured in — then she could conclude it was the most dense of the liquids evaluated.

KayleighMy brother is doing a science fair project on which candle melts the fastest and I wasn’t sure what graph to use because there are 5 candles.

Dr. Maille LyonsBar graph with each type of candle on the x-axis and time on the y-axis

kurtasWe are confused how to make an accurate graph. The project was which materials clean up oil the best. The conclusion was based off of visual observations. How do you put an amount or percentage to this and then form a graph?

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat did you measure as “best” – if it is a number then it would go on the y-axis and the type of material would go on the x-axis (bar graph, one bar per material type).

If you just looked and decided which one looked like it removed the most, but didn’t actually measure anything … then you can’t make a graph. Instead make a table with the observations in it.

JammieWe are doing a project on what water filter works best. Using sediments. How could we graph this?

Dr. Maille LyonsHow are you measuring “best”? You will need a number… water clarity? light transmission? weight of solids removed? etc.

That will go on the y-axis; with type of water filter on the x-axis (bar graph)

JacquieWorking on a water, salt, egg floatation experiment. I charted the time I finished dissolving the salt, how many tablespoons were in the water at the time and of course, the state of the egg at that time. My question, is there some time of graph I could make to represent these findings? What information should go on which axis?

Thank you so much!

Dr. Maille LyonsProbably a bar graph… with “Amount of Salt” on the x-axis and whatever you measured as the “state of the egg” on the y-axis. If you did not measure anything (just made observations about how it looked? or yes/no for floating?) then you don’t have the data to make a graph, but you could present your results in a Table.

EssiHello my daughter is doing her project on home made snow but I am not sure what graph I can use?

Dr. Maille LyonsIt depends on what she actually did… In general, what was measured goes on the y-axis and what was changed goes on the x-axis. Bar graph if the “thing” on the x-axis is a category; Line graph if it is quantitative (e.g. time, temperature, distance, etc.).

JackieHello my son is doing a science fair project on how well vinegar and water cleans tile when ketchup, mud, honey, crayon, jelly get on it. I am stumped on what type of graph to use and how to set it up. Thanks

Dr. Maille LyonsIt would be a clustered bar graph with two different colored bars, one for vinegar and one for water, for each “stain” tested (ketchup, mud, honey, crayon, jelly) across the x-axis. Alternatively, you could do two bar graphs, one for water and one for vinegar and display them side by side.

What ever you measured as “how well it cleans” must be a number and will go on the y-axis.

RikkiI need help to know how to describe how you would draw a graph to compare the different temperature requirements for various bacteria.

Dr. Maille LyonsEither a bar graph with temperature on the y-axis and type of bacteria on the x-axis;

Or

Line graph with temperature on the x-axis and some measure of growth for each type of bacteria on the y-axis.

Sasha p.I did a project on the affects of putting a glow stick in a different environment like to see how long it would glow,any changes in it etc. What kind of graph should I use?

Dr. Maille LyonsBar graph: Environment on x-axis; time (how long it glowed) on y-axis

FYI: Your project was on the EFFECTS (not affects) of putting ….

RitaMy son is doing a project on can sound travel on string by making plastic cup telephones with 3 different types of strings of cotton ,metal n nylon.can I show that on chart or graph or tables or anything else

Dr. Maille LyonsIs the answer yes/no? or good/better/best? A table will be his best means of presenting the results.

If he is measuring something (so more than just yes or no answer or more than ranking), then you could make a bar graph with type of string on the x-axis and whatever was measured on the y-axis.

Sydney CorbettSo, my hypothesis for my science experiment is that dogs best respond to dog treats, not verbal praise. How should I graph my data for a x axis and y axis chart?

Dr. Maille LyonsWhat did you measure?

zuzaizaithank you a lot I will use these content to teach my student who gonna be a good scientist in future as soon as has this nice website.. thank you

AmyMy sons project is on the effects sugar has on teeth. We put 6 baby teeth in a container of different kinds of soda and watched the amount of decay. We also measured the phone level in each soda and are making a bar graph with that information. We need on more graph or chart.

Dr. Maille LyonsYou could make a BAR GRAPH: The different kinds of soda will go on the x-axis and whatever you measured will go on the y-axis.

You might be able to make a Line graph with time on x-axis and whatever you measured on y-axis, one line per type of soda

Melissa SkirpanMy son is seeing if a red eared slider turtle can recognize color. He is food training the turtle in front of the color red for one week. He will then change the position of the color red with three other colors. Four instance the color position could be red, blue, green, and yellow. We will then see if the turtle will go to the color red when we change the position of the red in the order on each night. This will be measured by which color zone he goes to first. We are struggling with independent and D pendant variable’s and then how to graph this. Any advice?

Dr. Maille LyonsFirst, remember the turtles have backbones so make sure you have school permission to do the experiment.

If you do, then your independent variable (the thing you change) is color; your dependent variable is the thing you measure. It should be quantitative – so a number. Maybe time it takes to go to the red? Maybe time it take to go to each color? Maybe percentage of time turtle goes to red? If it is just yes or no, then you will not be able to construct a graph. If it is something measurable then color goes on the x-axis and whatever you measure goes on the y-axis (bar graph)

Patty LavanMy son is working on an experiment measuring grafitti/paint removal–utilizing 4 different surfaces— metal, vinyl (siding), brick (stone ), and wood and 4 different cleaning agents. What graph would be best to use to shoe results?

Dr. Maille LyonsThe only graph he can properly make is a bar graph.

ONE option: He could put surface on the x-axis and whatever he measures on the y-axis with a different colored bar for teach cleaning agent AND/OR another option would be that he could put cleaning agent on the x-axis and whatever he measured on the y-axis and a different colored bar for each surface.

Make sure what he measures is quantitative (i.e. a number) – maybe percent taken off? or even the amount of time it takes to get it all off? or some other number. Take photos for the display – but to make a graph it has to be more than “better/best” or “more/less” or other adjectives